Vietnam became a member of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1994. Vietnam has a rich diversity of species and is counted as one of the mega-diverse countries. However, biodiversity in Vietnam is in danger. The number of endangered species of fauna and flora has been increasing since 2000. The factors causing this situation include population boom, economic policy, farmland expansion, over exploitation, forest fire, infrastructure construction, illegal wildlife trade, environment pollution, and alien invasive species. Gene flow from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) also can pose danger on biodiversity. 

In order to fulfill the obligations of a CBD member, the first National Biodiversity Action Plan was approved in 1995. On May 31, 2007, Vietnam’s Prime Minister approved the second Action Plan (Decree No. 79/2007/QD-TTg, National Action Plan on Biological Diversity to 2010 and the Strategy for implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Cartagena Protocol on Biodiversity to 2020). The 2007 Action Plan covers management of GMOs. Vietnam’s target set for 2010 include conducting risk assessments, labeling, and monitoring and inspecting of all GMOs marketed in Vietnam. 
In order to preserve biodiversity, the Government enacted Biodiversity Law (No. 20/2008/QH12) in November 2008. Chapter 5, Part 3 of the Biodiversity Law has 4 articles (Art. 65-68) on risk management of GMOs. For the implementation of Chapter 5, Part 3, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MoNRE) and other relevant ministries are drafting Biosafety Decree.